Thursday, March 19, 2020

poe essays

poe essays Elements of Fiction in Poe=s Writing Edgar Allan Poe was an artist of literature. He was one of the greatest thriller/story tellers that America has known. He was known as "a seminal figure in the development in science fiction and the detective story. His writing came to have enormous importance for modern French literature" (X, John Richardson). Edgar Allan Poe wasn't out to frighten his audience. According to Peithman, his interest for his audience was within the human mind. In three of his works, AMorella@, ALigeia@, and AThe Oval Portrait@, there are several similarities and differences of elements of fiction such as theme, plot, tone, symbol, point of view, and climax. In the story ALigeia@, the narrator did not love Rowena. Ligeia did not resemble Rowena in any way. Ligeia was just a figment of his imagination. The man was merely insane. He created Ligeia. AThe narrator is obsessed with his Ideal to the point where it takes on a life of its own, and had no ability to control his mind@(Piethman 45). The narrator was always absorbed in the features of Ligeia and how wonderful she always looked. She was so perfect in every way that she could not possibly be human. This story could have been related to Edgar Allan Poe=s could first wife=s death that ALigeia@ was a part of him. In AMorella@, it was said that she may have been a witch. Morella she is intelligent. Although, she did go to a school for the black arts. She represents surpassing knowledge that the husband doesn=t have. He wants to have this so he starts to study with her. He becomes her pupil. He did not love Morella. He only loved her knowledge. Because her husband did not love her at all, she cast a spell on him. The spell was for her soul to go into her daughter. The spell was a reminder for the man to regret what he did to Morella. How he neglected her as a wife. When the daughter was born, she looked e ...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Why Homeschooling Is on the Rise

Why Homeschooling Is on the Rise Homeschooling is an educational choice surrounded by many myths and misconceptions. Even though this method continues to provide high national test scores and well-rounded, diversely educated children, many people still do not see the virtue of the choice. They often have preconceived notions about what goes on in homeschooling. History and Background of Homeschooling Homeschooling is defined as instruction in an educational program outside of established schools. Homeschooling  dates back to the 1960s with a counter-culture movement that soon fizzled out. The movement was rekindled in the 1970s after the Supreme Court upheld the decision that removing school prayer was not unconstitutional. This decision sparked the Christian movement to homeschool although, at the time, it was illegal in 45 states. Laws slowly changed, and by 1993 homeschooling was recognized as a parent’s right in all 50 states. (Neal, 2006) As people continue to see the benefits, the numbers continue to grow. In 2007, the U.S. Department of Education reported that the number of homeschooling students had climbed from 850,000 in 1999 to 1.1 million in 2003. (Fagan, 2007) Reasons People Homeschool As a homeschooling mother of two I am frequently asked why I homeschool. I believe that Mariette Ulrich (2008) best summed up the reasons why people homeschool when she said: I prefer to make those [educational] choices myself. Not because I think I know ‘better’ than all those professional educators, but I do think I know my own children best, and consequently which programs and methods would benefit them. Homeschooling is not about rejecting other people and things; it’s about making personal and positive choices for your own family. (1) While statistics do not show that violence is on the rise, it is hard to ignore stories in the news relating violent school events on a regular basis. Because of these perceptions of school violence, it isn’t difficult to understand why some parents want to educate their children at home. However, this is sometimes viewed as an attempt to shelter their children. Homeschoolers understand that sheltering their children would not do any good. They will still be exposed to the violence in the world through other mediums. Nevertheless, homeschooling does help to keep them safe by keeping them away from the current trend of school violence. While school violence is now a leading factor in many parents’ decisions there are many different reasons for choosing to homeschool. The statistics state that: 31.2 percent of home-schooling parents say that â€Å"concern about the environment of other schools† was their primary reason for home instruction16.5 percent stated â€Å"dissatisfaction with the academic instruction in other schools†29.8 percent said â€Å"to provide religious or moral instruction†6.5 percent was â€Å"because the child has a physical or mental health problem†7.2 percent said â€Å"because the child has other special needs†8.8 percent gave â€Å"other reasons† (Fagan, 2007). For my family it was a combination of the first three reasons- academic dissatisfaction being top- along with specific incidents that led us to decide to homeschool. How Homeschooled Students Perform Academically People might have their own preconceived ideas about who exactly homeschools. Homeschoolers initially consisted of white, middle-class, and/or religious fundamentalist families, but is no longer limited to this group. (Greene Greene, 2007) In fact, the number of African American homeschoolers has steadily grown in recent years.  (Black, 2006,) You can understand why when looking at national statistics. A significant discovery in the study Strengths of Their Own: Home Schoolers Across America stated that there was no difference in homeschooling scores based on the student’s race, and that scores for both minority and white students in grades k-12 averaged in the 87th percentile. (Klicka, 2006) This statistic is in sharp contrast to the public school systems where 8th grade white students score in th e 57th percentile on average, while blacks and Hispanic students score in the 28th percentile in reading alone. (Klicka, 2006) Statistics do not speak favorably only about minorities but all students who homeschool, regardless of their demographics. The study â€Å"Strengths of Their Own: Home Schoolers Across America† completed in 1997, included 5,402 students that homeschool. The study verified that on average, homeschoolers were performing higher than their public school equivalent â€Å"by 30 to 37 percentile points in all subjects.† (Klicka, 2006) This seems to be the case in all studies performed on homeschoolers; however, due to the lack of standard test practices in each state and no unbiased collection of these scores, it is hard to determine the exact average score for homeschooling families. In addition to flourishing standardized test scores, many homeschool students also have the benefit of fulfilling graduation requirements and going to college earlier. This is attributed to flexible nature of homeschooling.  (Neal, 2006) Studies have also been made to compare homeschool and public school settings in cases of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. The studies showed that homeschooling parents provided educational settings yielding more â€Å"academic engaged time (AET)† in comparison to the public school settings, making homeschooling more beneficial for the child’s development and learning. (Duvall, 2004) Due to this increase in academic performance it is no wonder that colleges are attempting to recruit more homeschoolers because of their high test scores coupled with their self-discipline for completing work. In an article sent around to college personnel about the benefits of making special efforts to recruit homeschoolers Greene and Green say, â€Å"We believe that the homeschool population represents fertile ground for college enrollment efforts, consisting as it does of many bright students with a wide array of educational, personal, and family experiences.†Ã‚   Homeschool Teacher Qualifications Beyond the statistics, when someone talks about homeschooling, usually two points come up. The first is whether the parent is qualified to teach their child, and the second and possibly biggest question asked of  homeschoolers everywhere is about socialization. Qualification is a big concern because opponents of homeschooling believe that parents do not have the ability to teach children like a certified teacher does. I do agree that teachers have accreditation beyond what typical homeschooling parents do, but I also believe that parents have the ability to teach a child any class that they would need, especially in the elementary years. Children have an ability in homeschool that is not available to them in a traditional classroom. If a student has a question in class, it might not be the appropriate time to ask the question, or the teacher might be too busy to answer. However, in homeschool if a child has a question, time can be taken to answer the question or look up the answer if it is unknown. No one all of the answers, not even teachers; after all they are human as well. Dave Arnold of the National Education Association (NEA) stated, â€Å"You would think that they might leave this- the shaping of their children’s minds, careers, and futures- to trained professionals.† (Arnold, 2008) Why would it make more sense to leave these important factors in a child’s life to a person who with be with him for only a year? Why leave those factors to someone  who does not have time to develop the child’s strengths and weaknesses and provide one-on-one time with him? After all even Albert Einstein was homeschooled. However, there are resources for parents who aren’t confident about teaching higher level classes. Some options include: online or correspondence coursesco-opscommunity college classes (Fagan, 2007) With these classes- usually utilized in math or science but available in all subjects- students have the benefit of a teacher knowledgeable in the subject. Tutoring and access to the teacher for specific help are usually available.   While I do disagree with the statement that parents are not qualified to teach their children, I believe that there should be end of year testing. This requirement is on a state to state guideline, and I believe that it should be made mandatory so that a parent can prove that homeschooling is effective for her child. If public school children are required to take these tests, then so should homeschoolers. Virginia law states that all families must register [with their local school district] on a per yearly basis and submit results of professional standardized testing scores (similar to SOL) although there is an option of â€Å"religious exemption† that does not require any end of year testing. (Fagan, 2007) The study â€Å"Strengths of Their Own: Home Schoolers Across America† also found that students ranged in the 86th percentile â€Å"regardless of state regulation,† whether a state had no regulations or a large amount of regulations. (Klicka, 2006, p. 2) These statistics show that state regulations on testing, on what degree of certification a parent has (which can range from no high school diploma to certified teacher to holder of a non-relational bachelors degree), and compulsory attendance laws all have no significance in regards to scores achieved on tests. Homeschool Student Socialization Finally the biggest concern among  those questioning or outright opposed to homeschooling is socialization. Socialization is defined as : â€Å"1. To place under government or group ownership or control. 2. To make fit for companionship with others; make sociable. 3. To convert or adapt to the needs of society.† The first definition is not applicable to education but the second and third are worth looking into. People believe that kids need socialization with other children in order for them to be productive members of society. I completely agree with that. I believe if you have a child who is homeschooled and is rarely in public, interacting with others, then I agree that you will have a problem with that child in years to come. That is just common sense. However, I do not believe socializing is fitting in with other children their own ages that have no moral compass, no sense of right, or wrong and no respect for teachers and authority figures. When children are young and impressionable, it is hard for them to tell which children to steer clear of, often until it is too late. This is where peer pressure comes into play, and children want to mimic their peer group’s behavior in order to fit in and receive group acceptance. Dave Arnold of the NEA also speaks about one specific website that says not to worry about socialization. He says, â€Å"If this website encouraged homeschooled children to join after-school clubs at the local school, or participate in sports or other community activities, then I might feel different. Maine state laws, for example, require local school districts to allow home-schooled students to participate in their athletic programs† (Arnold, 2008, p. 1). There are two problems with his statement. The first untruth is that most homeschoolers dont want to participate in elementary and high school sports like this. There arent legal requirements in each state allowing them to so in states without laws it is based on the individual school board. The problem with this is that school boards sometimes do not allow homeschoolers to participate in their organized sports, whether due to lack of funding or discrimination. The second untruth in his statement is that homeschoolers do encourage these types of activities. Homeschoolers in general know that their children need interaction with other children (of all age ranges not just specific to their own grade) and do everything possible to ensure their children receive this. This comes in the form of: team sportsco-ops (groups of homeschoolers who get together weekly to exchange classes to allow for socialization and taking advantage of the parents’ strong teaching points)support groups (homeschoolers that get together on a regular basis for the children to play or participate in activities such as bowling or roller skating)clubs such as 4H  and scoutslessons such as dance and karate. Many  public libraries, museums, gyms and other community groups and businesses offer programs and classes, catering to the growing number of homeschoolers. (Fagan, 2007) This usually allows more avenues for education as well as opportunities for homeschooling families to get together. Socialization is a very important aspect in every child’s life. However, homeschool graduates that have been exposed to these avenues of socialization have shown just as much ability to survive in and contribute to society as their public school counterparts. Homeschooling is a viable option to those who feel that their children aren’t learning enough, are falling prey to peer pressure, or are exposed or susceptible to too much violence in school. Homeschooling has statistically proven over time that it is a method of education that succeeds with test scores surpassing those in public schools. Homeschool graduates have proven themselves in the college arena and beyond. The questions of qualification and socialization are often argued, but as you can see have no solid facts to stand on. As long as the test scores of those students whose parents are not certified teachers remains higher than public school children, no one can argue for higher qualification regulations. Even though the socialization of homeschoolers does not fit in the standard box of a public classroom setting, it is proven to be just as effective if not better in providing quality (not quantity) socializing opportunities. The results speak for themselves in the long run. I am often asked why I homeschool.  There are so many answers to this question- dissatisfaction with public schools, safety, the state of society today, lack of religion and morals- that I would end up going on and on. However, I think my feelings are summed up in the popular phrase, â€Å"I’ve seen the village, and I don’t want it raising my child.† References Arnold, D. (2008, February 24). Home schools run by well-meaning amateurs: schools with good teachers are best-suited to shape young minds. National Education Association. Retrieved March 7, 2006, from nea.org/espcolumns/dv040220.html Black flight- to homeschool (2006, March-April). Practical Homeschooling 69. 8(1). Retrieved March 2, 2006, from Gale database. Duvall, S., Delaquadri, J., Ward D. L. (2004, Wntr). A preliminary investigation of the effectiveness of homeschool instructional environments for student with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. School Psychological Review, 331; 140(19). Retrieved March 2, 2008, from Gale database. Fagan, A. (2007, November 26) Teach your children well; with new resources, home-schooling numbers grow (page one)(special report). The Washington Times, A01. Retrieved March 2, 2008, from Gale database. Greene, H. Greene, M. (2007, August). There’s no place like home: as the homeschool population grows, college and universities must increase enrollment efforts targeted to this group (Admissions). University Business, 10.8, 25(2). Retrieved March 2, 2008, from Gale database. Klicka, C. (2004, October 22). Academic statistics on homeschooling. HSLDA. Retrieved April 2, 2008, from www.hslda.org Neal, A. (2006, September-October) Excelling in and out of the home, homeschooled kids are thriving across the country. Students demonstrating exceptional academic honors are capturing top slots at national competitions. Saturday Evening Post, 278.5, 54(4). Retrieved March 2, 2008, from Gale database. Ulrich, M. (2008, January) Why I homeschool: (because people keep asking). Catholic Insight, 16.1. Retrieved March 2, 2008 from Gale database. Updated by  Kris Bales

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Does modern music negatively influence children Research Paper

Does modern music negatively influence children - Research Paper Example 77 percent of rap music that was studied referred to alcohol and drug abuse, moreover, girls aged between 14 and 18 that watched these music videos were one and half times more likely to drink and use drugs2. Rap music also makes frequent references to guns and shootings, robbery and violence and revenge gang attacks against rival gangs that tend to influence and promote violent behavior. â€Å"Music also affects children’s sexual development, those who listened to music with lyrics that objectified and limited characterizations of sexuality reported a faster progression in their own sexual behavior†3. This is as opposed to children who are taught to listen to classical music by the likes of Mozart and Mendelssohn, which tend to be more successful and college prepared than those that have not been trained to listen to such kind of music4. The argument about whether or not music negatively affects children is inconclusive because, while some findings suggest music, for example, rap advocate violent behavior some findings suggest that music can be used as an anti-violent tool where rap was used for an anti- violence function in South Bronx, New York neighborhoods in the late 1970s5. Music is also considered a stress and anxiety reliever, it is used to destruct the mind from pain and hence calms the listener reliving them from pain stress (Bel Marra Health)6. Hence, an extensive research should be done to conclude concretely whether music has a negative or positive impact on

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Exam 5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Exam 5 - Essay Example Filing a complaint is the first step in every case including the sexual assault one. In order for the case to proceed to trial, the victim must be deemed credible when reporting of the sexual assault. The credibility will go ahead and assist when it comes to seeking testimony. Evidence even a little strengthens the credibility of the victim. If the victim is deemed credible, then the case will go to trial and given priority, if not, it will be rejected at this stage (Chancellor, 2012). When victims report of sexual assault to a police station, they record official statements. During trial, the victim is asked to narrate the events following the sexual assault and this is also recorded. The narration of the story and recording may be carried out several times and then all these official documents are compared for consistency. If the prosecutor finds any inconsistencies or discrepancies in these statements, then this is a good reason to reject the sexual assault case by first discrediting the allegations and then filing for the case to be thrown aside. The victim must therefore ensure that they stick to the details of the first statement recorded at the police station. If the victim passes this stage successfully and the statements in all the official documents match, then the case moves on to prosecution through by calling witnesses and presenting evidence of the sexual assault. In every different kind of sexual assault, there are certain behaviors that accompany them and which are known by the prosecutor. During examination or cross examination of the victim in court, some of these behaviors (depending on the type of sexual assault) are expected to be provided Failure to do this or divert from the â€Å"typified behavior of the assault† leads to discrediting of the statement and evidence and the whole case based in credibility issues. Based on the three methods based above, the one thing which is common in all the three and which is what really leads to the

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Planning and Compulsory Act 2004 | Evaluation

Planning and Compulsory Act 2004 | Evaluation The Planning and Compulsory Act 2004 was enacted  as a response to criticism of the Compulsory Purchase system in England and Wales. Identify the key issues  of statute and analyse the likely reaction to the legislation. Introduction The Planning and Compulsory Act 2004 represents the first new Planning Act in over a decade and took in excess of eighteen months for the negotiation of its passage in the Palace of Westminster as well as special dispensation to enable the Act to be carried from one session of Parliament to the next. The Compulsory Purchase system that was in force in England and Wales that it overhauls is in keeping with reforms under the United Kingdom’s Sustainable Communities programme which was enacted to reverse the tide of empty and abandoned properties throughout the region as a result of the mass migration of the middle and upper middle class to suburban communities (Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, 2005). In essence, the Compulsory Purchase system is what is termed in the United States as the law of eminent domain, compulsory acquisition in Australia, or expropriation in Canada as well as South Africa and represents the government’s authority to appropriate property, priva tely held, for its utilization in keeping with programs or reasons that represent the good of the general public (European Convention on Human Rights, 1950). As part of the United Kingdom’s far reaching ‘Sustainable Communities’ programme, which was launched by the Deputy Prime Minister on 5 February 2003, the Planning and Compulsory Act 2004 has been enacted to introduce more efficiency as well as speed and simplicity into local, regional and the U.K. government’s ability to work under as well as with the interlocking communities plans that include these three levels government cooperation and interaction (Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, 2005). The legal term ‘compulsory purchase’ is an adaptation of ‘eminent domain’ which was derived from a legal treatise that was written by Huo Grotius in 1625 (Chen, 2003) and represents the means via which government can acquire real property that is required for the completion of a public project that is seen as beneficial for the public in general and where the owner of said property has been or is unwilling to negotiate the terms for the sal e. It is important to understand that the power of ‘compulsory purchase’ under English law is derived from real property. The truth is that private property ownership is not absolute but rather that a governmental authority grants what is termed a ‘fee simple’, which is an allodial title that is reserved for government. Under this, the landowner assumes the right to own property within that government’s borders as a result of the payment of taxation and the powers of compulsory purchase, police power and escheat (thepaperadvantage.com. 2005). The preceding is part of the feudal system whereby the holder of the land, termed ‘estate’, could not sell said land but rather was entitled to grant subordinate ‘fee simple’ estate rights to other parties in a system that was known as subinfueddation. Blackstone (Cousin, 1910) explains that in the instance of land under English law, fee simple conveys that it, land, can be transferred and held, owned, by whomever the original holder so pleases. The present system of property ownership evolved from this foundation and thus the government’s power to re-acquire land under compulsory purchase, or eminent domain, has thus been and is an established facet of law. The Compulsory Purchase system that existed in England and Wales operated under a structure whereby local authorities, without a linkage to regional or national planning forums, made the planning policies for their areas and as such a broader and more encompassing system for the integration of these plans into a coherent regional and national policy did not exist. The new Planning and Compulsory Act 2004 has been designed to streamline the planning process through a system that is more centralized thus replacing the local development plans and the corresponding delays and red tape which developers and landowners faced (Brand, 1968). The aforementioned flight of the middle and upper middle class to suburban developments has created a crisis throughout England and Wales whereby older communities now lack the middle and upper income tax base that was sustaining community services. In addition, a real housing shortage has and does exist throughout the country. It is estimated that there are approximately 220,000 to 230,000 new households entering the economy on a yearly basis (English House Condition Survey, 2003) and that there are just 170,000, estimated, new homes being built. The resulting high demand and low supply has created an imbalance in the housing market and driven the cost of home ownership out of the range of young adults thus creating an economic situation whereby older home owners of limited income find that their properties no longer have equity value as a result of the deteriorated neighborhoods caused by suburban flight. This imbalance has created a serious lack of affordable housing, thus resulti ng in the United Kingdom’s sweeping Sustainable Communities plan (Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, 2005). The developers state that the imbalance has been and is a result of the red tape involved in obtaining planning approvals from local authorities, which is countered by claims from consumer groups such as the Campaign for the Protection of Rural England that state developers and landowners have been hoarding land in an effort to drive up prices. The overall affect of the preceding, regardless of final blame, has been a severe economic condition that has crippled the UK’s housing market, driven down house prices in older neighborhoods and created an abandoned house situation whereby the mortgage costs of older homes exceeds their market value. This is the economic climate that has fostered the development of the Planning and Compulsory Act 2004, and the ramification of it with respect to the Compulsory Purchase system it replaces shall be examined herein from the context of criticisms leveled at the latter. The preceding summary of the economic and governmental aspects which prompted the adoption of the Planning and Compulsory Act 2004 have been undertaken to provide the background information necessary by which to understand the underlying developments which led to the enactment and passage of the Act. The Act seeks to eliminate the delay bottlenecks and red tape encountered through a redesign of the structure of the planning system from the local level onto the national level as called for under the Sustainable Communities initiative (Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, 2005). It replaces the planning policies made by local authorities with one that considers the ramifications and effects of varied building and development programs on a national basis. Under the old structure County Councils implement the preparation of planning policies as contained in structure plans, and these are further refined at the District Council level which forms the plans for the are development (planning sanity.com). The Act abolishes the Regional Planning Guidance and Structure Plans and replaces them with Regional Spatial Strategies that thus forms the basis for new plan development (Brand, 1968). The Regional Spatial Strategies under the new system will be prepared via appointed Regional Planning Bodies and will have some assistance from the existing County Councils. As the proceeding has raised concerns over accountability, a process of public consultation with respect to the Regional Spatial Councils shall be provided at examinations (uk-legislation, 2004). The new framework also eliminates local plans which now will fall under the auspices of Local Development Documents that are overseen and prepared by District Councils. Given the massive restructuring involved, the Act has a period of three years in which these transitions will be made. The preceding broad summary of the overall process contains the following improvements, modifications and changes that the Act introduces: Broad Scale Act Overview The Act has been designed to create a more flexible as well as responsive system for the planning of building programs in England and Wales, as is summarized as follows (uk-legislation, 2004): Provides for a streamlined, simpler and more flexible system at the local and regional level; provides for increased community involvement at the local and regional levels and includes the provision for financial assistance with respect to Planning Aid; Introduces powers for application forms that thus improve control over the developmental process as well as new provisions changing the length of time it takes for planning permissions. It also permits local planning authorities to bring up development rights in the local development orders; Introduces speed to the administrative handling of large infrastructure projects through the process of concurrent rather than consecutive hearings; Removes the immunity that the English Crown had in the planning process; Proves a system whereby the compulsory purchase plan is fairer, faster and easier to understand and work within on regeneration as well as major infrastructure projects. Part 1 and 2 of the Act Under these provisions of the Act a change in the way developmental plan making is conducted in the United Kingdom abolishes the cumbersome Compulsory Purchase system in the following manner(s) (uk-legislation, 2004): Under the new Act each region will have its own spatial strategy. In those instances where it is feasible as well as relevant, the existing regional planning guidance agency shall become the new regional spatial strategy unit. The regional spatial strategy units will be kept under review by the Regional Planning Bodies to monitor their implementation and as an oversight contingency. The Regional Planning Bodies must prepare a written draft of the revised Regional Spatial Strategy when such is expedient or required. The important manner of housing numbers and allocations will be arrived at in the foregoing level and where appropriate in sub-regional plans. The Regional Planning Bodies will take advice from county councils as well as other bodies that have expertise on strategic planning to aid in the planning of revisions of plans and drafts of the Regional Spatial Strategy agencies. The foregoing brings local and specialized expertise into the planning structure and provides monitoring of actions to ensure that the developed plans are in the best interests of all concerned. And most importantly, the public will be involved in the preparation of Regional Spatial Strategies. These changes from the Compulsory Purchase system spread out the planning expertise in a manner whereby there are cross checks and balances in the new system as well as expedient processing that is responsible to a higher level thus ensuring compliance. The multi faceted nature of the preceding has been streamlined into a system that processes planning rather than bogs it down and as a result removes the incidence of special interests steam rolling plans through given the public involvement as well as review by the Regional Planning Bodies. The Act does call for some changes in England that are not a part of the Wales plan with regard to the local plan regime below the Regional Spatial Strategy level. The following summarizes these modifications and changes (uk-legislation, 2004): The Local Planning Authorities will now prepare the Local Development Documents which will now replace all local plans, as well as unitary development and structure plans The Local Planning Authorities will now prepare as well as be responsible to maintain the local development scheme, and win the absence of a District Council, the County Councils shall prepare as well as maintain the mineral and waste development plans. The County Councils under this new arrangement will lose structure plans however they do participate in the preparation of the Local development Documents as well as related aspects other than comprising mineral or waste as a result of being part of a joint committee under the Local Planning Authorities. The Local Development Plans will be in conformity with the Regional Spatial Strategy, or with the RSS for London. Part 3 of the Act (uk-legislation, 2004) Under this provision, the definition of the development plan is updated and takes account of the modification and changes that are made to the planning system as a result of the Act. The foregoing includes the requirement whereby it is the duty of plan makers to perform their functions in consort with the overall objective of adding to the attainment and achievement of sustainable development. Part 4 of the Act This segment of the Act provides for a series of developmental control measures, one of which permits the Local Planning Authorities to introduce permitted development rights on a local level through local development orders. Development orders as well as regulations will be made by the Secretary of State through detailing the procedures entailed in making applications with respect to permission and consents. In addition, the Secretary of State will have the power to determine fees and charges along with the setting of timetables for what are termed ‘call-ins’ as well as ‘recovered appeals’. Part 4 also contains new provisions entailing the simplification of planning zones (uk-legislation, 2004). Part 5 of the Act This segment of the Act permits the Secretary of State as well as planning inspectors to make corrections concerning errors found in decision letters as well as in decision documents (uk-legislation, 2004). Part 6 of the Act Part 6 makes reforms to the Welsh development system plan (uk-legislation, 2004). Part 7 of the Act This part of the Act ends the Crown Immunity with respect to the planning system and contains a special provision concerning specific planning applications made by as well as on behalf of the Crown (uk-legislation, 2004). Part 8 of the Act The reform of the existing regime is contained in this part of the Act whereby it details the new plan to make it easier for Local Planning Authorities, the National Park authorities and joint planning boards to submit a case for Cop’s in terms of an economic, environmental or social benefit to the area in question. This segment of the Act also broadens the categories regarding individuals with an interest in the land who can bring forward objections. And finally, this part of the Act covers compensation and ownership issues (uk-legislation, 2004). Part 9 of the Act The last segment of the Act contains general issues. Given the sweeping nature of the Act, it is impossible to gauge the potential reaction to what still is in some aspects a work in progress. The preceding statement is made as a result of the amendment of some measures which occurred during the process of approving the original Act. These changes included retaining of the planning permissions as the development industry was not pleased with losing that aspect of control as well as the dropping of the Statements of Development Principles. The modifications also included strengthening the segments regarding sustainable development as a result of the view that saw the Act leaning too strongly in favor of landowners and developers. In addition, other changes included the amendment of provision concerning major infrastructure provisions whereby it is required to submit an economic impact report. The other major change was to allow for the inclusion of temporary stop notices and the provision to provide for appeals with respect to second no tices (uk-legislation, 2004). Conclusion The new legislation provides for more influence on the part of County Councils as a result of modifications contained in Part 4 as well as the regional public participation segment. The broader inclusion of the public in the process is likely to be received positively this segment, however since the Act was designed with developers and landowners in mind the question of whether the new system will effectively see to the broad mandates of the Deputy Prime Minister’s Sustainable Communities plan must be first put to the test of time. There is no question that a streamlined as well as modernized system was needed as well as required to overhaul the process that had been in place. The overall housing shortage situation has become a national priority and the Deputy Prime Minister’s Sustainable Communities plan is a long term legislation aimed at correcting the procedural as well as economic conditions which have led to the high prices housing segment and deterioration of inn er cities. There will undoubtedly be other modifications and changes to the Act as practical use uncovers minor shortcomings whereby certain aspects were unforeseen or accounted for. There already has been what can be termed reaction to the new legislation as evidenced by the preceding and the fact that the system is now more flexible as well as responsive helps to minimize potential dissatisfaction of any provisions as they can be amended when warranted. The inclusion of the foregoing minimizes the potential for any long term negative reaction as each segment with a stake in the process has a means to see modifications or potential modifications are heard. Bibliography Brand, Clive, M. 1968. Encyclopaedia of Compulsory Purchase and Compensation. Sweet Maxwell. ISBN: 0421007508 Chen, Wei. 2003. On the Law of War and Peace (De Jure Belli ac Pacis, Translation of the Latin works of Hugo Grotius. http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Thebes/8098/ Cousion, John. 1910. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. J.M. Dent Sons, London, The United Kingdom English House Condition Survey. 2003. English House Condition Survey: Review of Survey Design. National Center for Social Research. London, The United Kingdom European Convention on Human Rights. 1950. Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, as amended by Protocol No. 11. http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/Treaties/Html/005.htm Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. 2005. The Communities Plan. http://www.odpm.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1139868 Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. 2005. Sustainable Communities. http://www.odpm.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1139865 Plannngsanity.com. 2003. Compulsory Purchase Forum. http://www.planningsanity.co.uk/forums/cp/compurch.htm Thepaperadvantage.com.2005 Allodial Title. http://www.paperadvantage.org/allodial.html Uklegislation.com. 2004. Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004. http://www.uk-legislation.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts2004/20040005.htm

Friday, January 17, 2020

Individual Management and Leadership Plan

Introduction This brief is aimed at investigating and reporting my own individual management and leadership plan. It covers identifying and owning my individual leadership development requirements using a range of appropriate diagnostic tools. Alongside with this is the planning of the development of these skills, supporting such plan with appropriate use of academic and leaning theories. Such plans are placed in an organisational or industry context, in which clear links to organisational strategies are created. Appropriate professional reflection at relevant intervals is incorporated. According to Gallos (2008), leadership is a complex social process that is grounded on the values, knowledge, and skills of leaders and followers. Adaptive change is always involved in the concept of leadership. Leaders are able to see new opportunities and facilitate a multifaceted interactive process that reinforces individual and collective growth. Ladkin (2010) states that understanding leadership as a lived experience requires studying it within the specific context in which it operates. It is important for leaders to relate to followers where they must work together within a specific context and work towards a clear purpose. Kezar (2009) has articulated that leadership is a property of whole systems rather than of individuals, which means that effectiveness in leadership is a result of those associations or relationships amongst parts rather than of any one part of such system (i.e. the leader). This will be illustrated in the devised plan and placing such plan in an industry context. Identifying and Owning my Individual Leadership Development Requirements This part of the paper effectively identifies my own individual leadership development requirements through the use of a range of appropriate diagnostic tools such as Belbin Test, Four Temperaments Personality Test, and Myers Briggs Assessment. These individual leadership development requirements consist of what one knows about himself, what he does not know about himself, and how to find it out. The reason why one must identify and own his/her individual leadership development requirements is because of the need to examine where his skills, behaviour, and attitudes are placed within leadership and collaborative continuum and how he/she helps in building leadership in the organisation. It is also important to link personality and character with leadership because personality and character determine how one leads a group or organisation (Adair, 2007). According to Kezar (2009), team and collaborative leadership models highlight the significance of focusing on organisational relationships, processes, and structures that foster collaboration, instead of emphasis on identifying and cultivating individual leadership skills. The Myers Briggs Assessment tends to yield accurate type results through the use of administered and scored questionnaire (Quenk, 2009). (Since this test is not available online, it is only cited here as one of the assessment tools that assesses personality/behaviour and is not utilised in actual assessment.) The Belbin Test, on the other hand, measures the behavioral contribution of an individual through Belbin team role theory, making this test a behavioural test rather than a personality test. Team role preferences are identified in Belbin reports to enable the individual to know and appreciate the extent of their strengths and the behaviour that must be developed for the benefit of the team (Riding and Rayner, 2001). From the Team Roles Test, which is part of the Belbin Test that I have taken, my strengths are identified as the ability to effectively resolve conflict with teammates and ability to plan and coordinate with teammates. The potential strengths, on the other hand, are satisfactory interpersonal skills, ability to communicate with others with relative ease, and ability to manage various tasks and other aspects of teamwork. The limitations I exhibit, which require further improvements for my team role performance, are lack of team-based problem-solving ability, setting only few goals for team projects, and preference for individual work instead of team work (Psych Tests, 2014). The Belbin Test clearly shows the strengths, potential strengths (which can turn into real strengths in the future, given one’s increased maturity), and limitations (which can also turn into strengths, given their realisation through the test) for one’s undertaking of the team roles. On the other hand, the Four Temperaments Personality Test yields for me a 75-per cent score for each of the Sanguine, Choleric, and Melancholic aspect, whilst 58 per cent for the Phlegmatic aspect. This would mean that I am a people-person who likes socialising and exhibits optimism, enthusiasm, compassion, impulsiveness, and self-indulgence. Being choleric, the results show that I am extroverted, task-oriented, and seek competition and success at all cost, with strong leadership skills and passion for work. Being melancholic, I am respectful, compassionate, and possess intuitive traits. My phlegmatic traits, which are underplayed by the three other traits -sanguine, choleric, and melancholic- are passive aggressiveness and calmness (How Much Do I, 2014). These traits play an influential stance on how I approach leadership and teamwork. My sanguine, choleric, and melancholic traits can be used in how I undertake leadership and team roles in my work towards achieving set goals. My kno wledge of both these dominant and negligible traits based on the four temperaments supports my knowledge of my skills based on the Belbin Test. Planning the Development of Mentioned Skills This part of the paper includes planning for the development of the skills mentioned above. These skills are the potential skills and limitations identified in the Belbin Test. The Four Temperaments Personality Test shows one’s personality based on temperaments, which greatly aids in my understanding of my inclination to developing the potential skills and cited limitations. The plan includes the following: Improving my interpersonal skills from satisfactory level to above-average level Increasing my ability to communicate with others with relative ease Improving team-based problem-solving ability setting several goals for team projects instead of only a few ones Increasing my preference for team work over individual work in accomplishing goals Improving my interpersonal skills from satisfactory level to above-average level The importance of increasing my interpersonal skills from satisfactory level to above-average level is seen in the fact that effective leadership necessitates not only analytical and decision-making skills but also interpersonal skills (Grant, Rothstein, and Burke, 2010). Such importance is evidenced by leader-member exchange theory, which focuses on the low-exchange and high-exchange dyadic relationships between the leader and the followers (Rainey, 2009), and transformational leadership theory, which states that leaders must inspire followers towards more accomplishment by focusing on the value of the followers and helping them align these values with those of the organisation (Givens, 2008; Nohria and Khurana). Additionally, Robinson (2011) underlines the importance of interpersonal skills by linking them to goal setting, such that the quality of goal setting is always connected to the quality of (interpersonal) relationships. Goal setting will remain empty unless leaders are a ble to motivate the people who are required to achieve them. Grant and colleagues (2010) note the dichotomy between analytical and decision-making skills on one hand, and interpersonal skills on the other. It is important to delineate what constitutes interpersonal skills in order to place the significance of this skill to the wider leadership context. According to Grant et al. (2010), interpersonal skills development for leaders and managers refer to complex abilities of conflict management and negotiation skills, rater than just plainly focusing on engaging people in quality interactions, speaking and listening effectively, and providing positive feedback. As for improving my interpersonal skills, this will be done by attending a skills training seminar focused on interpersonal skills for effective leadership (e.g. Grant et al., 2010). Increasing my ability to communicate with others with relative ease The importance of communication to leadership is that it is the process used for setting and communicating clear goals (Robinson, 2011). Improving this skill is through constant practice; meaning, talking to people more often. This is however not a difficult stance to undertake since as my score in the Four Temperaments Personality Test shows, I have dominant extrovert behaviour shown by my sanguine and choleric tendencies, which indicate an interest to communicate with people (e.g. Ricketts and Ricketts, 2011). Management theory’s human relations movement highlights the importance of people motivation (Banhegyi, 2007), which is indirectly linked to communicating with them to foster smooth relationships. Improving team-based problem-solving ability In my plan to develop my management of various tasks and other aspects of teamwork, an important point to consider is that a leader cannot rely on teamwork to develop automatically without exerting some conscious effort on his/her part. Without the leader’s influence, it is still possible for teamwork to develop to some extent, but this setting is unlikely for the work group to develop member satisfaction and maximum task performance (Butterfield, 2011). In order to develop my team-based problem solving ability, my course of action is to read books on the subject. Applying into practice what I have learned conceptually and theoretically about it will yield positive outcomes, leading to desired improvements in my management of various tasks and other aspects of teamwork. Theodore Newcomb’s Balance Theory explains why people tend to be attracted towards group formation, and this is because of the similarity in attitudes in their pursuit for a common goal. Such similarity allows them to share ideas with one another and function as a team. Lack of similar attitudes leads to loss of balance, resulting in a team not being formed (Kandula, 2006). An important thing to consider is that team-based learning is a result of good team-based decision making and problem-solving ability (Michealsen, Sweet, and Parmelee, 2008). Setting several goals for team projects instead of only a few ones Goal-setting involves identifying the goals to be established, gaining the commitment of people who are tasked to achieve them, and communicating these goals to people who have interest in their achievement (Robinson, 2011). Having this renewed realisation that setting many goals rather than just a few ones is more preferable to effective leadership and goal attainment, the plan is focused on taking a conscious effort on enumerating several goals every time goal-setting is being undertaken, and suggesting to the group a more increased identification of goals each time the group tends to identify only a few ones. The point is consciously putting into practice this knowledge. The relevance of setting several goals instead of only a few ones is apparent; a team that identifies more goals is able to achieve more goals, compared to a team that identifies only a few goals, which becomes delimited to achieving only these few goals. The Goal Setting Theory explains the importance of goals in motivating people to work, and consequently, in making them behave with a purpose (Lussier, 2012). This would mean that not only is goal-setting beneficial for the organisation but for the people working on these goals as well. Increasing my preference for team work over individual work in accomplishing goals Since leadership is about leading people, individual work is not the paramount aspect of goal achievement, but teamwork. In a team, people work together towards achieving desired goals, have full and sufficient understanding in the importance of these goals, how these goals may be achieved successfully, and what each one and the whole team may contribute to their successful achievement. If the leader and even the team members are more focused on working individually rather than as a team, the essence of teamwork is lost. (Ricketts and Ricketts (2011) indicate that working as a team is more effective than working individually; thus, the motivation to utilise teamwork and the various literature on the importance of this concept (e.g. Dyer, Dyer, and Dyer, 2007; Morgeson, Reider, and Campion, 2005; Valle and Witt, 2001). Since the results of my Four Temperaments Personality Test indicate that I have an extraverted temperament, this temperament would help in my ability to build team wor k. The result of my Four Temperaments Personality Test on the phlegmatic aspect, specifically self-indulgence, is a good point to consider in my current preference for individual work over team work. On the other hand, since my dominant sanguine and choleric propensities show that I am inclined to being extraverted, this preference is likely to be changed with ease, given such initial knowledge for its imperative change. Heneman and Greenberger (2002) state that the facilitation of team work is through the efforts of some extraverted individuals. Placing the Plan in an Organisational or Industry Context/Strategy Having accomplished the plan, the next step would be to place this in an organisational or industry context, creating clear links to organisational strategies. First of all, leadership is an important concept in the success of an organisation, which is why organisations always gear for effective leadership or management in the workplace. Leadership is different from seniority or one’s position in the hierarchy of his or her organisation. It is an influential relationship that takes place between a leader and his/her followers as they pursue certain changes or objectives that mirror shared meanings, purposes, and strategies (Mills, Mills, Forshaw, et al., 2007). The potential skills and limitations, on which the plan has been established, will eventually add up to my series of strengths identified by the Belbin Test. After implementing the plan, the expected outcomes for me would be above-average interpersonal skills, ability to communicate with others with relative ease, improved team-based problem solving ability, setting many goals for team projects, and increased preference for team work over individual work. These skills are useful in an organisational context; specifically in managing people where the leader/manager needs to unify his/her team towards successful goal attainment. By being able to work in a team and foster good communication skills, problem solving ability, and other skills thus cited as my strengths, I and my team would together work on the necessary aspects of several tasks, which we are responsible to accomplish. The retail industry is the specific industry context on which the plan is placed. This industry is characterised by several challenges in attaining competitive advantage because of the presence of new entrants, substitute products, bargaining power of customers and suppliers, and rivalry between existing competitors (Stonehouse, Campbell, Hamill, et al., 2004). These challenges serve as a factor for my pursuit for effective leadership and team roles, on which the plan is established. My ability to effectively resolve conflict with teammates and to plan and coordinate with them plays a significant role in smooth working relationships within the team. This importance is further seen in the claim that conflict and lack of team coordination serve as a barrier to attaining desired goals (e.g. Lencion, 2012; Rout and Omiko, 2007). Moreover, my improved interpersonal skills will enable me to communicate my ideas more effectively across people and departments. It has been noted that interpe rsonal skills refer to analytical and decision-making skills (Grant et al, 2010), which means that my possession of these skills will aid my team and the organisation in addressing the competition that retail companies commonly experience. These – together with my improved ability to communicate with others with relative ease, improved team-based problem-solving ability, setting many goals, and increased preference for team work over individual work – will help the company develop strategies for competitive advantage. Incorporating Appropriate Professional Reflection at Relevant Intervals This research has enabled me to identify my own strengths, limitations, and potential skills in leadership and team roles. Apparently, I had no prior ideas of these skills and limitations on a systematic basis, but the Belbin Test and the Four Temperaments Personality Test enabled me to find out approximately what these skills are. I certainly have an initial knowledge of myself, but these tests confirmed them and even added some more which I was not very aware of, such as my satisfactory level of my interpersonal skills, a need to communicate with others with relative ease, a need to improve my team-based problem-solving ability, and my inclination to set only a few goals instead of many goals for team projects. Some of the skills that I am already aware of are effective conflict resolution and ability to plan and coordinate with teammates. Moreover, the Four Temperaments Personality Test made me understand the ease that the potential skills and limitations may be improved. This is because of my dominant combination of sanguine, choleric, and melancholic temperaments, which have positive traits for leadership abilities (e.g. extraversion, being a people-person, optimism, and enthusiasm, being task-oriented, being competition-focused, and being success-specific and strong leadership skills). A further realisation that I have derived from this exercise is the importance of knowing oneself – strengths, skills, abilities, potentials, and limitations – since such knowledge serves as a prelude to being able to manage teams and the organisation as a whole. By being able to systematically identify my strengths, I have been personally assured of my abilities. By being able to also systematically identify my potentials and limitations, I have found out the areas that need improvement. These limitations and potentials allow me to better focus on what I must take an effort to improve on, whilst seeing them as a way for constructive criticism. In addition, no effective leader can function without self-realising his own strengths, skills, and limitations since only when he/she has fully realised them can they be able to function more effectively. Conclusion This paper has provided an investigation of one’s own individual management and leadership plan, using such diagnostic tools as the Belbin test and the Four Temperaments Personality Test. These tools helped identify and own my individual leadership development requirements. Through the Belbin Test, certain strengths were thus identified along with the potential skills and limitations. The Four Temperaments Personality Test also identified the dominant temperaments that helped in the assessment of one’s leadership propensities and abilities. The plan for development of the skills is centered on improving my interpersonal skills from satisfactory level to above-average level; increasing my ability to communicate with others with relative ease; improving team-based problem-solving ability; setting several goals for team projects instead of only a few ones; and increasing my preference for team work over individual work in accomplishing goals. The retail industry is the specific industry context on which the plan is placed. A professional reflection is conducted, focused on how the entire work is done. References Adair, J. (2007) Develop Your Leadership Skills. London: Kogan Page. Banhegyi, s. (2007) Fresh Perspectives: Management. Cape Town: Pearson Education South Africa (Pty) Ltd. Butterfield, J. (2011) Illustrated Course Guides: Teamwork and Team Building. Mason, OH: Course Technology Cengage Learning. Dyer, W. G., Dyer, W, G., and Dyer, J. H. (2007) Team Building: Proven Strategies for Improving Team Performance. NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Gallos, J. (2008) Business Leadership: A Jossey-Bass Reader. NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Givens, R. J. (2008) Transformational Leadership: The Impact on Organizational and Personal Outcomes. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1 (1), 4-24. Grant, M., Rothstein, G., and Burke, R. (2010) Self-Management and Leadership Development. Glos, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. Heneman, R. L. and Greenberger, D. B. (2002) Human Resource Management in Virtual Organizations. US: Information Age Publishing Inc. How Much Do I (2014) What Is My Personality TypeFour Temperaments Personality Test. Retrieved on May 10, 2014 from http://www.howmuchdoi.com/personality/What-is-my-personality-type-Four-Temperaments-Personality-Test-70.html Kandula, S. R. (2006) Performance Management: Strategies, Interventions, Drivers. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Private Limited. Kezar, A. J. (2009) Rethinking Leadership in a Complex, Multicultural, and Global Environment. Sterling Virginia: Stylus Publishing. LLC. Larkin, D. (2010) Rethinking Leadership† New Look at Old Leadership Questions. Glos, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. Lencion, P. (2012) The Five Dysfunctions of a Team: Intact Teams Participant Workbook. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. Lussier, R. N. (2012) Management Fundamentals: Concepts, Applications, Skill Development. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. Michealsen, L. K., Sweet, M., and Parmelee, D. X. (2008) Team-Based Learning: Small Group Learning’s Next Big Step. New York: Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mills, J. C., Mills, J. B., Forshaw, C., and Bratton, J. (2007) Organizational Behaviour in a Global Context. Plymouth, UK: NBN International. Morgeson, F. P., Reider, M. H., and Campion, M. A. (2005) Selecting Individuals in Team Settings: The Importance of Social Skills, Personality Characteristics, and Teamwork Knowledge. Personnel Psychology, 58 (3), 583-611. Nohria, N. and Khurana, R. (2010) Handbook of Leadership Theory and Practice: An HBS Centennial Colloquium. US: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. Psych Tests (2014) Team Roles Test. Retrieved on May 10, 2014 from http://testyourself.psychtests.com/bin/transfer Quenk, N. L. (2009) Essentials of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Assessment. NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rainey, H. G. (2009) Understanding and Managing Public Organizations. NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Ricketts, C. and Ricketts, J. (2011) Leadership: Personal Development and Career Success. Mason, OH: DELMAR Cengage Learning. Riding, R. J. and Rayner, S. (2001) Self Perception. Westport: Ablex Publishing. Robinson, V. (2011) Student-Centered Leadership. NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Rout, E. and Omiko, N. (2007) Corporate Conflict Management: Concepts and Skills. New Delhi: PHI Learning Private Limited. Stonehouse, G., Campbell, D., Hamill, J., and Purdie, T. (2004) Global and Transnational Business: Strategy and Management. Second Edition. NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Valle, M. and Witt, L. A. (2001) The Moderating Effect of Teamwork Perceptions on the Organizational Politics-Job Satisfaction Relationship. The Journal of Social Psychology, 141 (3), 379-388.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Proposed SCUBA (Stable, Conservative Underwater Borrower...

There is no shortage of programs now available in the mortgage industry to help ease the foreclosure crisis. Although some of them provide direct financial assistance to key participants in the foreclosure process to encourage them to find a less costly alternative, there is really no national effort to address one of the most stubborn factors that often leads to foreclosure and in some cases thwarts efforts to avoid it. Many borrowers in the U.S. owe more than their house is worth, either on just their first mortgage or in combination with a second mortgage or home-equity line of credit. A First American CoreLogic study recently estimated that 23 percent of all homeowners are in a â€Å"negative equity† position, and the number is†¦show more content†¦These charges are now either included in the closing costs or added as premiums on the interest rate. HARP is only available for performing Fannie and Freddie loans, but that covers a huge portion of the U.S. mortgage market. In a recent article in his nationally syndicated newspaper column on real estate, Ken Harney reported on a new study by Brent White, a professor at the University of Arizona, which argues that many underwater borrowers should intentionally default on their loan and bear the consequences of being shut out of the credit market for a few years. That strategy may be particularly appealing in states where lenders can’t try to recover unpaid mortgages from the borrower’s other assets. Such â€Å"voluntary foreclosures† are one form of a problem that has shaped the foreclosure debate since the government first began devising alternative strategies. Lawmakers and officials in both the Bush and Obama administrations have struggled to find ways to prevent homeowners from using federal assistance when they don’t need it, or profiting from their â€Å"bailout.† That goal has become even more intense since the government was forced to create the $750 billion Troubled Asset Relief Program, most of which has been used to prop up banks and other â€Å"too-big-to-fail† enterprises. A relatively small portion of TARP is being used to pay for HAMP incentives to borrowers, lenders and investors. SCUBA